• Research

Assessment of Mandibular Movement Monitoring With Machine Learning Analysis for the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Jean-Louis Pépin, MD, PhD; Clément Letesson, PhD; Nhat Nam Le-Dong, MD, PhD; Antoine Dedave, MSc; Stéphane Denison, MSc; Valérie Cuthbert, MSc; Jean-Benoît Martinot, MD; David Gozal, MD, MBA



Given the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), there is a need for simpler and automated diagnostic approaches.


To evaluate whether mandibular movement (MM) monitoring during sleep coupled with an automated analysis by machine learning is appropriate for OSA diagnosis.

Design, setting, and participants

Diagnostic study of adults undergoing overnight in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) as the reference method compared with simultaneousMM monitoring at a sleep clinic in an academic institution (Sleep Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Université Catholique de Louvain Namur Site Sainte-Elisabeth, Namur, Belgium). Patients with suspected OSA were enrolled from July 5, 2017, to October 31, 2018.

Main outcomes and measures

Obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis required either evoking signs or symptoms or related medical or psychiatric comorbidities coupled with a PSG-derived respiratory disturbance index (PSG-RDI) of at least 5 events/h. A PSG-RDI of at least 15 events/h
satisfied the diagnosis criteria even in the absence of associated symptoms or comorbidities. Patients who did not meet these criteriawere classified as not having OSA. Agreement analysis and diagnostic performance were assessed by Bland-Altman plot comparing PSG-RDI and the Sunrise system RDI (Sr-RDI) with diagnosis threshold optimization via receiver operating characteristic curves, allowing for evaluation of the device sensitivity and specificity in detecting OSA at 5 events/h and 15 events/h.


Among 376 consecutive adults with suspected OSA, the mean (SD) age was 49.7 (13.2) years, the mean (SD) body mass index was 31.0 (7.1), and 207 (55.1%) were men. Reliable agreement was found between PSG-RDI and Sr-RDI in patients without OSA (n = 46; mean difference, 1.31; 95% CI, ?1.05 to 3.66 events/h) and in patients with OSA with a PSG-RDI of at least 5 events/h with symptoms (n = 107; mean difference, ?0.69; 95%CI, ?3.77 to 2.38 events/h). An Sr-RDI underestimation of ?11.74 (95%CI, ?20.83 to ?2.67) events/h in patients with OSA with a PSG-RDI of at least 15 events/h was detected and corrected by optimization of the Sunrise system diagnostic threshold. The Sr-RDI showed diagnostic capability, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 (95%CI, 0.92-0.96) and 0.93 (95%CI, 0.90-0.93) for corresponding
PSG-RDIs of 5 events/h and 15 events/h, respectively. At the 2 optimal cutoffs of 7.63 events/h and 12.65 events/h, Sr-RDI had accuracy of 0.92 (95%CI, 0.90-0.94) and 0.88 (95%CI, 0.86-0.90) as well as posttest probabilities of 0.99 (95%CI, 0.99-0.99) and 0.89 (95%CI, 0.88-0.91) at PSG-RDIs of at least 5 events/h and at least 15 events/h, respectively, corresponding to positive likelihood ratios of 14.86 (95%CI, 9.86-30.12) and 5.63 (95%CI, 4.92-7.27), respectively.

Conclusions and relevance

Automatic analysis ofMMpatterns provided reliable performance in RDI calculation. The use of this index in OSA diagnosis appears to be promising.

Published on January 24, 2020